Kamis, 05 Desember 2019

It is never too late for babies to crawl

Crawling is important for babies because it can strengthen their muscles to support the next stage of development, namely walking. Traditionally, babies learn to crawl by balancing their bodies in a propped position on the hands and knees first. After that, he will find a way to move back and forth from this position by pushing his knees. Crawling skills begin with the ability to sit. At the age of six months, the baby can sit with his head held high. While at the age of nine months, babies in general can already sit alone without the need to be assisted or supported. Meanwhile, babies learn to crawl when they are 6-10 months old. However, some children may never learn to crawl and prefer to suck, crawl, or even directly to the stage of standing and walking. If your child is 10 months old and has not been able to crawl, Mother does not need to panic by assuming that the child's development is too late to be able to crawl because, maybe he might be the type of baby who passes the crawling stage and goes straight into the next stage. The following are the stages of a baby crawling.
  • Over several months, the baby will gradually learn to move confidently from a sitting position to a crawling position.
  • In all fours, he immediately realized that he could move his body back in place.
  • After the baby is around 9-10 months old, he will find out that he can now not only move in place, but can move to crawl forward by pushing his knees.
  • When you are crawling smoothly, he will learn how to move from all fours back to a sitting position.
  • Your Little One will master the more sophisticated crawling technique, which is to move with arms and legs from opposite sides rather than from the same side, for example right hand and left foot advancing first, then left hand and right foot, then so on.
  • At the age of one year, babies can be proficient in crawling skills if previously continued to be trained.
If your baby does not go through the crawling steps above, and is included in the type of child who prefers to suck, crawl, or jump right into the walking stage, don't worry because as long as he can be more agile in motion, it means that his development is fine. What you need to be aware of is if your child cannot support his own body weight or does not have the energy to move to the surrounding area. If the characteristics of your baby look similar in this condition, immediately consult a pediatrician. Your baby may have weak muscle tone, which is when the brain does not send nerve stimulation to the muscles or the muscles do not receive nerve stimulation from the brain. Another possibility is that the child does not undergo prone stage for sufficient time. Other signs to look out for are if the baby is completely unable to roll, crawl, or crawl even though he is already a year old. It's the same if babies tend to only move one side of the body. These signs can be dangerous or may indicate neurological disorders, such as cerebral palsy or cerebral palsy

The function of the thymus gland for health

The thymus gland has an important role in the immune system. If the thymus gland does not work well, cancer cells and various types of microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, will easily attack your body. The thymus gland is a gland located in the middle of the chest cavity, precisely behind the breastbone and between the lungs. Its shape resembles a small tube and consists of two parts of the same size. This thymus gland will change in size with age. When children and adolescents, the thymus gland will be more active and its size will be larger. When entering adulthood, these glands will shrink, and in the elderly, almost all the thymus glandular tissue will be replaced with fat tissue.

Thymus Gland Function

The thymus gland is an important part of the lymph system (lymphatic system) in the body. One of the important tasks of the thymus gland for health is producing white blood cells called T-lymphocytes or T cells. These cells are part of the immune system that functions to fight cancer cells and microorganisms that cause infections that enter the body. To maintain your health, T-lymphocytes do not work alone. These cells are assisted by another white blood cell called a B-lymphocyte. B-lymphocytes are produced by the spinal cord in the body. This white blood cell is in charge of detecting certain substances, foreign objects, and microorganisms that are considered dangerous in the body, then producing antibodies to fight them. In addition to T-lymphocyte cells, the thymus gland also produces the hormone thymosin which is tasked with supporting the work of T-lymphocytes in fighting infections and cancer cells. Several types of hormones, such as insulin and melatonin (sleep regulating hormones), are also produced by this gland, but only in small amounts. Although quite rare, the thymus gland has the potential to develop cancer. Cancer of the thymus gland is called thymoma. Sometimes this disease is asymptomatic, but if it gets worse, thymoma can cause several symptoms, such as:
  • Chest pain
  • Hard to breathe
  • Chronic cough
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Hoarseness
  • Weight loss
  • Easily tired
  • Swelling in the face and arms

Take care of the health of the thymus gland from now on!

Applying a healthy lifestyle is the most practical and effective way you can do to maintain the health of organs, including the thymus gland. To keep your immune system and thymus gland healthy, you can do the following:
  • Eating a balanced nutritious food.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Do not smoke and avoid consuming alcoholic drinks.
  • Maintain ideal body weight.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Reduce or avoid things that can trigger stress.
  • Sleep enough.
In addition to following some of the above healthy habits, regular health checks to the doctor also need to be done to ensure the health of the immune system, including the thymus gland. Because as you get older, your risk of experiencing problems in the thymus gland will be even higher. Problems that can arise include the size of the gland that does not shrink with age, thymus gland abnormalities, or abnormal white blood cell levels. The doctor will usually do a physical examination and support, such as blood tests to find out whether your thymus gland produces white blood cells in the right amount or not. To determine whether the shape of the thymus gland is normal or not, your doctor may also suggest other investigations, such as X-rays, and CT scans, or chest MRI.

Causes and Effects of Vitamin K Deficiency

Vitamin K deficiency is usually experienced by newborns. But sometimes, vitamin K deficiency can also affect adults. People who lack these nutrients can experience a number of serious health problems, especially bleeding. Vitamin K is a vitamin that plays an important role in producing substances in the body to support blood clotting. Vitamin K deficiency can be identified by the appearance of symptoms in the form of easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and dark stools with blood spots. Sometimes blood spots are also found under the nails. In infants, vitamin K deficiency can increase the risk of bleeding. This bleeding can occur in baby's organs, such as brain hemorrhage and digestive tract. In addition, vitamin K deficiency in infants can also cause growth and development obstacles and bone growth disorders. Therefore, babies need to get vitamin K injections after they are born. Vitamin K is divided into 2 types, namely:
  • Vitamin K1, also known as phylloquine, is vitamin K which comes from plants (food).
  • Vitamin K2, also known as menaquinone, is vitamin K produced by good bacteria in the intestines.

Causes of Vitamin K Deficiency in Adults and Babies

Vitamin K deficiency is very rare in adults. This condition is more commonly experienced by newborns. In adults, vitamin K deficiency can be caused by the following conditions:
  • Have a poor diet and rarely eat foods high in vitamin K.
  • Take blood thinning drugs, such as coumarin. Blood thinning drugs can interfere with the production of proteins that play a role in the process of blood clotting.
  • Undergoing treatment with antibiotics can reduce the production and effectiveness of vitamin K in the body.
  • Suffer from impaired absorption of nutrients or malabsorb This condition you can experience when suffering from celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, and disorders of the intestine or bile duct. Malabsorption can also occur due to side effects from surgical removal of the intestine.
Whereas in infants, vitamin K deficiency can occur due to:
  • Babies do not get enough vitamin K intake while still in the womb, because of abnormalities in the placenta or the mother is deficient in vitamin K during pregnancy.
  • The content of vitamin K in breast milk (ASI) is very small.
  • The baby's intestine has a problem, so it does not produce vitamin K.
To find out the exact cause of vitamin K deficiency, both in adults and infants, it is necessary to be examined by a doctor. To find out if a patient has vitamin K deficiency, the doctor will do a blood test to assess the level of vitamin K and blood clotting function.

What are the effects of Vitamin K deficiency?

Vitamin K deficiency can cause a number of health problems, including:

Heavy bleeding

The body needs vitamin K to produce certain proteins that play a role in the process of blood clotting. When the body lacks vitamin K, the production of substances that function to coagulate blood will decrease. As a result, you are more at risk of experiencing heavy bleeding.


Besides its role in the process of blood clotting, vitamin K also has an influence on bone health and strength. Some research shows that lack of vitamin K can reduce bone density, so you are more at risk of osteoporosis.

Heart disease

Findings from a number of studies explain that vitamin K also plays a role in maintaining healthy blood vessels of the heart. Therefore, people who lack vitamin K have a higher risk for heart problems, such as coronary heart disease.

How to Meet the Need for Vitamin K

Vitamin K needs for each person are not the same, depending on age, sex, and general health conditions. Adults are recommended to get vitamin K intake of 50-65 micrograms / day. Whereas the recommended intake of vitamin K for children and adolescents is 35-50 micrograms / day. In infants, the recommended intake of vitamin K is 5-15 micrograms / day. The need for vitamin K can be met by consuming:
  • Fruits, such as avocados, mangoes, grapes.
  • Soybeans.
  • Vegetables, such as cabbage, broccoli, turnips, kale, cabbage, and spinach.
  • Meat.
  • Egg.
To meet the needs of vitamin K, the baby can begin to be given some of the above foods when he is allowed to consume MPASI. Apart from food, vitamin K can also be obtained by taking vitamin K supplements. However, the dose needs to be consulted first with your doctor. This is to prevent excess vitamin K which is also not good for health.

Know the Functions and Ways to Care for Skin Epidermal Networks

Epidermal tissue is one of the outer layers of the skin. Its functions are varied, ranging from protecting the body from germs and harmful substances, determining the color of the skin, to producing certain cells that play an important role for health. Anatomy of the human skin consists of three main layers of skin, namely the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue. These three layers of skin are known as the largest body organ because they can reach around 2 square meters. Each layer of skin has different characteristics and functions. To find out what the epidermal tissue functions and how to treat it, let's consider the following review.

The function of the epidermis tissue and cells in it

The thickness of the epidermal tissue is not always the same in some parts of the body. For example, epidermal tissue in the soles of the feet and hands has a layer that is much thicker than the epidermis tissue on the face. The epidermis layer on the skin has several important functions, namely:

1. Protect the body

The main function of epidermal tissue is to prevent germs or harmful substances that can cause health problems to enter the body. Epidermal tissue also serves to prevent dehydration by reducing the evaporation of water through the skin.

2. Replacing dead skin cells

Every minute, there are about 30,000-40,0000 dead skin cells on the surface of your skin. The epidermal tissue is responsible for producing new cells to replace these dead skin cells.

3. Determine skin color

In addition to producing new skin cells, epidermal tissue also produces melanocyte cells. These cells contain pigments that play a role in determining the color of your skin. Dark skin depends on the amount of pigment in the skin melanocyte cells. If you have dark skin, this means that the amount of pigment in your cells is high. Exposure to sunlight and race are several factors that can affect the number of melanocyte cells in the skin.

4. Counteract the effects of sun exposure

Melanocyte cells not only play a role in skin color. These cells are also useful for protecting the body from excessive sun exposure. Skin that is too long exposed to sunlight can cause premature skin aging, wrinkles, and increase your risk of developing skin cancer.

5. Produces vitamin D

In the skin epidermis there are cells called keratinocytes. These cells function to produce vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D will later play a role in helping the body meet calcium needs. Keratin cells in the epidermis also play a role in preventing excessive evaporation of the skin. In addition to the above functions, epidermal tissue also has a role to produce skin's natural sweat and oil (sebum). This is because in the epidermis layer of the skin oil glands and sweat glands can be found. In addition, the skin pores where hair or hair grows are also found in the epidermis layer.

Treat Epidermal Tissues From Now

Considering the many roles of epidermal tissue for health, treating this outermost layer of skin should be done early. If not, epidermal tissue is susceptible to various health problems, including rashes, acne, dermatitis, psoriasis, and even skin cancer. Not only cause discomfort, experiencing skin problems will certainly also interfere with your appearance. Maintaining healthy skin epidermal tissue is not difficult. You can do this by applying the following simple methods:

1. Avoid sun exposure

Basically sunlight is good for the skin, because it can help the body produce vitamin D. However, sunlight is not always good for the skin. The best time to be exposed to healthy sunlight is 9am. Avoid being exposed to sunlight above 11 noon. Because at that time, the intensity of UVB rays was high and high. Exposure to UVB rays can cause skin wrinkles, age spots appear, dark spots, and increase your risk of skin cancer. If you often do outdoor activities when the sun is already hot, protect your skin by using sunscreen, hats, sunglasses, and clothing that is covered.

2. Keep skin clean

When bathing, use warm water and safe soap to clean the skin from dirt. Do not bathe for too long, because it can remove the natural oils contained in your skin. When finished, dry the skin by gently patting using a soft towel. Then, apply a moisturizer to the entire body, including the face.

3. Consumption of nutritious foods

Epidermal tissue and other parts of the skin need many types of nutrients to stay healthy, one of which is vitamin C. In the skin, vitamin C acts as an antioxidant that counteracts free radicals. Vitamin C also protects the skin from sun exposure which can damage the skin. You can get a variety of benefits of vitamin C for the skin from fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, guava, broccoli, and chili. In addition to vitamin C, nutrients that also play a role in skin health are zinc, beta carotene, protein, omega-3, lutein, and vitamin E, and vitamin D. Some of these nutrients can be obtained from olive oil, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, eggs, tea green, and fish.

4. Stay away from cigarettes

Cigarettes contain many substances that are not only harmful to the skin, but also your overall health. One of the negative effects of smoking on the skin is the narrowing of blood vessels in the epidermis tissue. This results in the skin looking dull and easily damaged. Other effects that can occur on the skin if you smoke are the skin looks old, appears wrinkled, and decreased flexibility. You are also increasingly at risk of developing skin cancer. So, stop smoking and avoid cigarette smoke from now on. In addition, also by not consuming alcoholic beverages. In addition to the above methods, maintaining healthy epidermal tissue also needs to be done by reducing stress, getting enough sleep, exercising regularly, and drinking lots of water.

Lumps Behind The Ear, This Is The Cause

Lumps behind the ear can be caused by many things, such as an infection or swollen lymph nodes. Some of the causes are not dangerous. However, lumps behind the ear need to be aware of if accompanied by other complaints. Although the cause is not always dangerous, a lump behind the ear still needs to be examined by a doctor, because it could be a sign of a problem in the ear, throat, or nose that causes swelling behind the ear. This condition needs to be examined by a doctor, especially if a lump that appears behind the ear is accompanied by other complaints, such as ear pain, ringing in the ears, impaired hearing, dizziness or vertigo, fever, difficulty swallowing, to headaches.

Causes of Lumps Behind the Ear

Lumps behind the ear are often caused by bacterial and viral infections. Examples of infections that can trigger the appearance of these lumps are strep throat, mononucleosis, measles, smallpox, and even HIV / AIDS. Besides infection, there are several other diseases that can cause a lump behind the ear, including:

1. Otitis media and internal

Otitis media is an infection in the middle ear, precisely in the cavity located behind the eardrum. This infection usually causes a buildup of fluid in the ear, pain in the ear, and swelling in the back of the ear. Otitis media that often recurs and is not treated can cause complications, such as an inner ear infection (otitis interna), hearing loss, ruptured eardrum, a tumor in the ear called cholesteatoma, and meningitis. Therefore, you should immediately consult a ENT doctor if you experience symptoms that lead to otitis media. To treat bacterial infections of the ear, doctors will usually give antibiotics and ear drops.

2. Mastoiditis

Mastoiditis is inflammation of the mastoid bone, which is the bone behind the ear that plays a role in the hearing process. One sign of mastoiditis is a lump behind the ear. This symptom is usually accompanied by headaches and pus or discharge from the ear. Mastoiditis is often caused by otitis media which is not treated immediately, so bacteria from the middle ear cavity spread to the mastoid bone. Mastoiditis can be treated with antibiotics, ear drops, or by cleaning the ears to the doctor. If this method does not work, surgery may be needed to prevent complications.

3. Abscess

Abscesses or pus-filled lumps appear when the body fights germs that cause infection. When fighting bacteria, the body sends white blood cells to an infected area of ​​the body, for example behind the ear. Bacteria and white blood cells that die will accumulate in the form of pus and cause a lump behind the ear. Small abscesses are likely to shrink, dry out, and disappear naturally without treatment. However, larger abscesses need to be treated with antibiotics, and pus needs to be removed with the help of a doctor.

4. Lymphadenopathy

Lymphadenopathy is a condition when there is swollen lymph nodes. The lymph nodes themselves are spread in various parts of the body, and one of them is behind the ear. When the lymph nodes behind the ear swell, a lump will appear in the area. Swollen lymph nodes are usually caused by infection, inflammation, or even cancer. Treatment of this condition depends of course on the cause. Although sometimes it can heal without treatment, a lump behind the ear caused by swollen lymph nodes still needs to be seen by a doctor.

5. Cancer

One of the causes of the emergence of a lump behind the ear that should be wary of is nasopharyngeal cancer. Apart from a lump behind the ear, this cancer can also cause a lump in the neck or throat. This cancer is often asymptomatic in its early stages. But as the disease develops, lumps can appear behind the ear accompanied by other symptoms, such as:
  • Difficult
  • Ear pain.
  • Colds that don't heal.
  • Frequent nosebleeds.
  • Hearing disorders.
  • Spots or canker sores in the mouth that do not go away.
  • The voice became hoarse
  • Pain in the neck or jaw.
  • Weight loss.
If you find any of these symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor to get further treatment. Besides infection, several other conditions can also cause the appearance of a lump behind the ear are:
  • Lipoma, a lump of fat that grows between the layers of the skin. These lumps can grow anywhere, including behind the ears, and are generally harmless.
  • Pimples or boils.
  • Sebaceous cysts, which are lumps that are not cancerous.

So, what kind of lump should be seen by a doctor?

When you find a lump behind the ear, try to feel and feel it. If the lump feels soft and moves easily, there is a possibility the lump is a lipoma. If the lump feels soft and painful to the touch, it may be that the lump is a pimple or an abscess. Also pay attention to whether there are other symptoms that accompany the appearance of the lump. For example, if the lump is accompanied by fever or chills, there is a possibility you have an infection. This condition must be immediately treated by a doctor. Because it can be caused by many things, a lump behind the ear should be examined by an ENT doctor. This examination is important to determine the cause of the appearance of a lump behind the ear, and to determine whether the lump is dangerous or not.
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